The ECLIPSE simulator contains numerous options for simulating field development strategies. Some of the highlights are detailed below.
Well and group controls
Every well and group of wells in the simulation can have production/injection targets and limits specified on oil rate, water rate, gas rate, liquid rate, bottom hole pressure, and tubing head pressure. The well or group operates under the mode of whichever quantity provides the tightest constraint, often switching many times throughout the simulation. To aid the process of history matching, it is also possible to place wells on rate controls specified by observed data.
Production wells can also be subject to additional economic constraints. A producer might be automatically shut in or recompleted if its oil, gas, or liquid rate falls below an economic limit. Similarly, if the water cut or gas–oil ratio exceeds a specified upper limit the well is worked over or shut.
When a group of wells can no longer meet its production rate targets, the simulator can automatically open new wells from a drilling queue, subject to constraints on the drilling rate and maximum number of wells in each group.
It is possible to specify a series of actions to be performed if certain criteria are met. For example “if the field pressure drops below a specified pressure, increase rates of all injectors” and “if the field water cut exceeds a predefined limit, shut all wells with a water cut above 90%.
Additional options can also be added to tailor ECLIPSE simulations to meet your needs.
A surfactant provides a way of recovering the residual oil by reducing the surface tension between the oil and water phases. Very low oil–water surface tension reduces the capillary pressure to allow water to displace extra oil. ECLIPSE EOR’s surfactant model handles the important features of a surfactant flood on a full-field basis. A key factor in the success of a surfactant flood is the extent to which the surfactant is absorbed onto the reservoir rock. ECLIPSE EOR models this process using either an analytical approach or tabulated isotherms.
Injecting chemicals with a high pH can trigger reactions with petroleum acids to form in situ surfactants. In addition to reducing surface tension effects, alkalines can decrease the rate of adsorption of surfactants and polymers. ECLIPSE EOR simulation models the injection of alkaline via a tracer in the water phase, with oil–water surface tension and the adsorption of polymer or surfactant varying as a function of alkaline concentration.
Frequently, chemical floods are done in combination, and one of the most common components is alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding. These recovery processes can be simulated easily in ECLIPSE EOR by using the previously described models and applying sophisticated field management logic.
ECLIPSE EOR extends the ECLIPSE Compositional simulator to simulate the physical and chemical processes involved in the injection, storage, extraction, separation, and mixing of CO2.